[apops] Cisco Security Advisory: Cisco IOS Secure Shell Denial of Servic

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  • Subject: [apops] Cisco Security Advisory: Cisco IOS Secure Shell Denial of Service
  • From: Cisco Systems Product Security Incident Response Team <psirt at cisco dot com>
  • Date: Wed, 21 May 2008 18:00:00 +0200
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      Cisco Security Advisory: Cisco IOS Secure Shell Denial of Service
      Vulnerabilities
      
      Advisory ID: cisco-sa-20080521-ssh
      
      http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080521-ssh.shtml
      
      Revision 1.0
      
      For Public Release 2008 May 21 1600 UTC (GMT)
      
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------
      
      Summary
      =======
      
      The Secure Shell server (SSH) implementation in Cisco IOS contains
      multiple vulnerabilities that allow unauthenticated users the ability
      to generate a spurious memory access error or, in certain cases,
      reload the device.
      
      The IOS SSH server is an optional service that is disabled by
      default, but its use is highly recommended as a security best
      practice for management of Cisco IOS devices. SSH can be configured
      as part of the AutoSecure feature in the initial configuration of IOS
      devices, AutoSecure run after initial configuration, or manually.
      Devices that are not configured to accept SSH connections are not
      affected by these vulnerabilities.
      
      Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) identifier CVE-2008-1159
      has been assigned to this vulnerability.
      
      This advisory is posted at 
      http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080521-ssh.shtm
      
      Affected Products
      =================
      
      Vulnerable Products
      +------------------
      
      Cisco devices running certain 12.4-based IOS releases and configured
      to be managed via SSH may be affected by this issue.
      
      The IOS secure shell server is disabled by default. To determine if
      SSH is enabled, use the show ip ssh command.
      
          Router#show ip ssh
          SSH Enabled - version 2.0
          Authentication timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
      
      The previous output shows that SSH is enabled on this device and that
      the SSH protocol major version that is being supported is 2.0. If the
      text "SSH Disabled" is displayed, the device is not vulnerable.
      Possible values for the SSH protocol version reported by IOS are:
      
        * 1.5: only SSH protocol version 1 is enabled
        * 1.99: SSH protocol version 2 with SSH protocol version 1
          compatibility enabled
        * 2.0: only SSH protocol version 2 is enabled
      
      For more information about SSH versions in IOS, please check the
      following URL: 
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_3t/12_3t4/feature/guide/gt_ssh2.html
      
      The SSH server is not available in all IOS images. Devices that do
      not support SSH are not vulnerable. Please consult the table of fixed
      software in the Software Version and Fixes section for the specific
      12.4-based IOS releases that are affected.
      
      To determine the software running on a Cisco product, log in to the
      device and issue the show version command to display the system
      banner. Cisco IOS software will identify itself as "Internetwork
      Operating System Software" or simply "IOS". The image name will be
      displayed between parentheses on the next line of output followed by
      "Version" and the IOS release name. Other Cisco devices will not have
      the show version command or will give different output.
      
      The following example identifies a Cisco product running IOS release
      12.4(17):
      
          Cisco IOS Software, C2600 Software (C2600-ADVENTERPRISEK9-M), Version 12.4(17),
          RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
          Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
          Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
          Compiled Fri 07-Sep-07 16:05 by prod_rel_team
          
          ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.2(8r) [cmong 8r], RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
          
          Router uptime is 1 week, 5 hours, 5 minutes
          System returned to ROM by power-on
          System image file is "flash:c2600-adventerprisek9-mz.124-17.bin"
      
      Additional information about Cisco IOS release naming is available at
      http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/620/1.html
      
      Products Confirmed Not Vulnerable
      +--------------------------------
      
      Cisco devices that do not run IOS are not affected.
      
      Cisco IOS devices that do not have the SSH server feature enabled are
      not affected.
      
      IOS-XR images are not affected.
      
      The following IOS release trains are not affected:
      
        * 10-based releases
        * 11-based releases
        * 12.0-based releases
        * 12.1-based releases
        * 12.2-based releases
        * 12.3-based releases
      
      IOS releases prior to 12.4(7), 12.4(13d)JA, and 12.4(9)T are not
      affected by this vulnerability.
      
      No other Cisco products are currently known to be affected by these
      vulnerabilities.
      
      Details
      =======
      
      Secure shell (SSH) was developed as a secure replacement for the
      telnet, ftp, rlogin, rsh, and rcp protocols, which allow for the
      remote access of devices. The main difference between SSH and older
      protocols is that SSH provides strong authentication, guarantees
      confidentiality, and uses encrypted transactions.
      
      The server side of the SSH implementation in Cisco IOS contains
      multiple vulnerabilities that allow an unauthenticated user to
      generate a spurious memory access or, in certain cases, reload the
      device. If the attacker is able to reload the device, these
      vulnerabilities could be repeatedly exploited to cause an extended
      Denial of Service (DoS) condition.
      
      A device with the SSH server enabled is vulnerable.
      
      These vulnerabilities are documented in Cisco Bug IDs:
      
        * CSCsk42419 ( registered customers only)
        * CSCsk60020 ( registered customers only)
        * CSCsh51293 ( registered customers only)
      
      Vulnerability Scoring Details
      =============================
      
      Cisco is providing scores for the vulnerabilities in this advisory
      based on the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS). The CVSS
      scoring in this Security Advisory is done in accordance with CVSS
      version 2.0.
      
      Cisco will provide a base and temporal score. Customers can then
      compute environmental scores to assist in determining the impact of
      the vulnerability in individual networks.
      
      CVSS is a standards-based scoring method that conveys vulnerability
      severity and helps determine urgency and priority of response.
      
      Cisco has provided an FAQ to answer additional questions regarding
      CVSS at
      
      http://www.cisco.com/web/about/security/intelligence/cvss-qandas.html
      
      Cisco has also provided a CVSS calculator to help compute the
      environmental impact for individual networks at
      
      http://intellishield.cisco.com/security/alertmanager/cvss
      
      * CSCsk42419 - SSHv2 spurious memory access
      
      CVSS Base Score - 7.8
          Access Vector -             Network
          Access Complexity -         Low
          Authentication -            None
          Confidentiality Impact -    None
          Integrity Impact -          None
          Availability Impact -       Complete
      
      CVSS Temporal Score - 6.4
          Exploitability -            Functional
          Remediation Level -         Official-Fix
          Report Confidence -         Confirmed
      
      * CSCsk60020 - SSHv2 spurious memory access
      
      CVSS Base Score - 7.8
          Access Vector -             Network
          Access Complexity -         Low
          Authentication -            None
          Confidentiality Impact -    None
          Integrity Impact -          None
          Availability Impact -       Complete
      
      CVSS Temporal Score - 6.4
          Exploitability -            Functional
          Remediation Level -         Official-Fix
          Report Confidence -         Confirmed
      
      * CSCsh51293 - Spurious memory access when SSH packets received
      
      CVSS Base Score - 7.8
          Access Vector -             Network
          Access Complexity -         Low
          Authentication -            None
          Confidentiality Impact -    None
          Integrity Impact -          None
          Availability Impact -       Complete
      
      CVSS Temporal Score - 6.4
          Exploitability -            Functional
          Remediation Level -         Official-Fix
          Report Confidence -         Confirmed
      
      Impact
      ======
      
      Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities may result in a
      spurious memory access or, in certain cases, reload the device
      potentially resulting in a DoS condition.
      
      Software Versions and Fixes
      ===========================
      
      When considering software upgrades, also consult 
      http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt and any subsequent advisories to 
      determine exposure and a complete upgrade solution.
      
      In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain the
      devices to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current
      hardware and software configurations will continue to be supported
      properly by the new release. If the information is not clear, contact
      the Cisco Technical Assistance Center ("TAC") or your contracted
      maintenance provider for assistance.
      
      Each row of the Cisco IOS software table (below) describes a release
      train and the platforms or products for which it is intended. If a
      given release train is vulnerable, then the earliest possible
      releases that contain the fix (the "First Fixed Release") and the
      anticipated date of availability for each are listed in the "Rebuild"
      and "Maintenance" columns. A device running a release in the given
      train that is earlier than the release in a specific column (less
      than the First Fixed Release) is known to be vulnerable. The release
      should be upgraded at least to the indicated release or a later
      version (greater than or equal to the First Fixed Release label).
      
      For more information on the terms "Rebuild" and "Maintenance,"
      consult the following URL: 
      http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/620/1.html
      
      IOS releases prior to 12.4(7), 12.4(13d)JA, and 12.4(9)T are not
      affected by this vulnerability.
      
      +----------------------------------------+
      |   Major    | Availability of Repaired  |
      |  Release   |         Releases          |
      |------------+---------------------------|
      |  Affected  | First Fixed | Recommended |
      | 12.0-Based |   Release   |   Release   |
      |  Releases  |             |             |
      |----------------------------------------|
      | There are no affected 12.0 based       |
      | releases                               |
      |----------------------------------------|
      |  Affected  | First Fixed | Recommended |
      | 12.1-Based |   Release   |   Release   |
      |  Releases  |             |             |
      |----------------------------------------|
      | There are no affected 12.1 based       |
      | releases                               |
      |----------------------------------------|
      |  Affected  | First Fixed | Recommended |
      | 12.2-Based |   Release   |   Release   |
      |  Releases  |             |             |
      |----------------------------------------|
      | There are no affected 12.2 based       |
      | releases                               |
      |----------------------------------------|
      |  Affected  | First Fixed | Recommended |
      | 12.3-Based |   Release   |   Release   |
      |  Releases  |             |             |
      |----------------------------------------|
      | There are no affected 12.3 based       |
      | releases                               |
      |----------------------------------------|
      |  Affected  | First Fixed | Recommended |
      | 12.4-Based |   Release   |   Release   |
      |  Releases  |             |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | 12.4(13f)   |             |
      |            |             |             |
      |            | 12.4(16b)   |             |
      | 12.4       |             | 12.4(18b)   |
      |            | 12.4(17a)   |             |
      |            |             |             |
      |            | 12.4(18)    |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | Only 12.4   |             |
      |            | (13d)JA and |             |
      |            | 12.4(13d)   |             |
      |            | JA1 are     |             |
      | 12.4JA     | vulnerable, | 12.4(16b)   |
      |            | all other   | JA3         |
      |            | 12.4JA      |             |
      |            | releases    |             |
      |            | are not     |             |
      |            | affected.   |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4JK     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4JMA    | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4JMB    | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4JMC    | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4JX     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4MD     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4MR     | 12.4(16)MR2 | 12.4(16)MR  |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4SW     | 12.4(15)SW1 | 12.4(15)SW1 |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | 12.4(9)T6   |             |
      |            |             |             |
      |            | 12.4(11)T4  |             |
      | 12.4T      |             | 12.4(15)T5  |
      |            | 12.4(15)T2  |             |
      |            |             |             |
      |            | 12.4(20)T   |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XA     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XB     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XC     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XD     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | Vulnerable; |             |
      | 12.4XE     | first fixed | 12.4(15)T5  |
      |            | in 12.4T    |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | Vulnerable; |             |
      | 12.4XF     | first fixed | 12.4(15)T5  |
      |            | in 12.4T    |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XG     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | Vulnerable; |             |
      | 12.4XJ     | first fixed | 12.4(15)T5  |
      |            | in 12.4T    |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      |            | Vulnerable; |             |
      | 12.4XK     | first fixed | 12.4(15)T5  |
      |            | in 12.4T    |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XL     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XM     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XN     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XQ     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XT     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XV     | Vulnerable; |             |
      |            | contact TAC |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XW     | 12.4(11)XW6 | 12.4(11)XW6 |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XY     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      |------------+-------------+-------------|
      | 12.4XZ     | Not         |             |
      |            | Vulnerable  |             |
      +----------------------------------------+
      
      Workarounds
      ===========
      
      If disabling the IOS SSH Server is not feasible, the following
      workarounds may be useful to some customers in their environments.
      
      Telnet
      +-----
      
      Telnet is not vulnerable to the issue described in this advisory and
      may be used as an insecure alternative to SSH. Telnet does not
      encrypt the authentication information or data; therefore, it should
      only be enabled for trusted local networks.
      
      VTY Access Class
      +---------------
      
      It is possible to limit the exposure of the Cisco device by applying
      a VTY access class to allow only known, trusted hosts to connect to
      the device via SSH.
      
      For more information on restricting traffic to VTYs, please consult: 
      http://cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/products_command_reference_chapter09186a00800873c8.html#wp1017389
      
      The following example permits access to VTYs from the 192.168.1.0/24
      netblock and the single IP address 172.16.1.2 while denying access
      from anywhere else:
      
          Router(config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
          Router(config)# access-list 1 permit host 172.16.1.2
          Router(config)# line vty 0 4
          Router(config-line)# access-class 1 in
      
      Different Cisco platforms support different numbers of terminal
      lines. Check your device's configuration to determine the correct
      number of terminal lines for your platform.
      
      Infrastructure ACLs (iACL)
      +-------------------------
      
      Although it is often difficult to block traffic transiting your
      network, it is possible to identify traffic that should never be
      allowed to target your infrastructure devices and block that traffic
      at the border of your network. Infrastructure ACLs are considered a
      network security best practice and should be considered as a
      long-term addition to good network security as well as a workaround
      for this specific vulnerability. The ACL example shown below should
      be included as part of the deployed infrastructure access-list, which
      will protect all devices with IP addresses in the infrastructure IP
      address range.
      
      A sample access list for devices running Cisco IOS is below:
      
          
          !--- Permit SSH services from trusted hosts destined 
          !--- to infrastructure addresses.
          access-list 150 permit tcp TRUSTED_HOSTS MASK INFRASTRUCTURE_ADDRESSES MASK eq 22
          !--- Deny SSH packets from all other sources destined to infrastructure addresses.
          access-list 150 deny   tcp any INFRASTRUCTURE_ADDRESSES MASK eq 22
          !--- Permit all other traffic to transit the device.
          access-list 150 permit IP any any
          
          interface serial 2/0
            ip access-group 150 in
      
      The white paper titled "Protecting Your Core: Infrastructure
      Protection Access Control Lists" presents guidelines and recommended
      deployment techniques for infrastructure protection access lists.
      This white paper can be obtained here: 
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk648/tk361/technologies_white_paper09186a00801a1a55.shtml
      
      Control Plane Policing (CoPP)
      +----------------------------
      
      The Control Plane Policing (CoPP) feature may be used to mitigate
      these vulnerabilities. In the following example, only SSH traffic
      from trusted hosts and with 'receive' destination IP addresses is
      permitted to reach the route processor (RP).
      
      Note: Dropping traffic from unknown or untrusted IP addresses may
      affect hosts with dynamically assigned IP addresses from connecting
      to the Cisco IOS device.
      
          access-list 152 deny   tcp TRUSTED_ADDRESSES MASK any eq 22
              access-list 152 permit tcp any any eq 22
              !
              class-map match-all COPP-KNOWN-UNDESIRABLE
               match access-group 152
              !
              !
              policy-map COPP-INPUT-POLICY
               class COPP-KNOWN-UNDESIRABLE
                drop
              !
              control-plane
               service-policy input COPP-INPUT-POLICY
      
      In the above CoPP example, the ACL entries that match the exploit
      packets with the "permit" action result in these packets being
      discarded by the policy-map "drop" function, while packets that match
      the "deny" action are not affected by the policy-map drop function.
      
      CoPP is available in Cisco IOS release trains 12.0S, 12.2SX, 12.2S,
      12.3T, 12.4, and 12.4T.
      
      Additional information on the configuration and use of the CoPP
      feature can be found at the following URL: 
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/iosswrel/ps6537/ps6586/ps6642/prod_white_paper0900aecd804fa16a.html
      
      Obtaining Fixed Software
      ========================
      
      Cisco has made free software available to address this vulnerability
      for affected customers. Prior to deploying software, customers should
      consult their maintenance provider or check the software for feature
      set compatibility and known issues specific to their environment.
      
      Customers may only install and expect support for the feature sets
      they have purchased. By installing, downloading, accessing or
      otherwise using such software upgrades, customers agree to be bound
      by the terms of Cisco's software license terms found at 
      http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-license-agreement.html, or as 
      otherwise set forth at Cisco.com Downloads at 
      http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-usingswc.shtml
      
      Do not contact either "psirt at cisco dot com" or "security-alert at cisco dot com"
      for software upgrades.
      
      Customers with Service Contracts
      +-------------------------------
      
      Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through
      their regular update channels. For most customers, this means that
      upgrades should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's
      worldwide website at http://www.cisco.com
      
      Customers using Third-party Support Organizations
      +------------------------------------------------
      
      Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through
      prior or existing agreement with third-party support organizations
      such as Cisco Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers
      should contact that support organization for guidance and assistance
      with the appropriate course of action in regards to this advisory.
      
      The effectiveness of any workaround or fix is dependent on specific
      customer situations such as product mix, network topology, traffic
      behavior, and organizational mission. Due to the variety of affected
      products and releases, customers should consult with their service
      provider or support organization to ensure any applied workaround or
      fix is the most appropriate for use in the intended network before it
      is deployed.
      
      Customers without Service Contracts
      +----------------------------------
      
      Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but who do not hold a Cisco
      service contract and customers who purchase through third-party
      vendors but are unsuccessful at obtaining fixed software through
      their point of sale should get their upgrades by contacting the Cisco
      Technical Assistance Center (TAC). TAC contacts are as follows.
      
        * +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
        * +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
        * e-mail: tac at cisco dot com
      
      Have your product serial number available and give the URL of this
      notice as evidence of your entitlement to a free upgrade. Free
      upgrades for non-contract customers must be requested through the
      TAC.
      
      Refer to http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml
      for additional TAC contact information, including special localized
      telephone numbers and instructions and e-mail addresses for use in
      various languages.
      
      Exploitation and Public Announcements
      =====================================
      
      The Cisco PSIRT is not aware of any public announcements or malicious
      use of the vulnerability described in this advisory.
      
      This vulnerability was discovered by Cisco internal testing and
      customer service requests.
      
      Status of This Notice: FINAL
      ============================
      
      THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS AND DOES NOT IMPLY ANY
      KIND OF GUARANTEE OR WARRANTY, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF
      MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE. YOUR USE OF THE
      INFORMATION ON THE DOCUMENT OR MATERIALS LINKED FROM THE DOCUMENT IS
      AT YOUR OWN RISK. CISCO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR UPDATE THIS
      DOCUMENT AT ANY TIME.
      
      A stand-alone copy or Paraphrase of the text of this document that
      omits the distribution URL in the following section is an
      uncontrolled copy, and may lack important information or contain
      factual errors.
      
      Distribution
      ============
      
      This advisory is posted on Cisco's worldwide website at 
      http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20080521-ssh.shtml
      
      In addition to worldwide web posting, a text version of this notice
      is clear-signed with the Cisco PSIRT PGP key and is posted to the
      following e-mail and Usenet news recipients.
      
        * cust-security-announce at cisco dot com
        * first-teams at first dot org
        * bugtraq at securityfocus dot com
        * vulnwatch at vulnwatch dot org
        * cisco at spot dot colorado dot edu
        * cisco-nsp at puck dot nether dot net
        * full-disclosure at lists.grok dot org dot uk
        * comp.dcom.sys.cisco at newsgate dot cisco dot com
      
      Future updates of this advisory, if any, will be placed on Cisco's
      worldwide website, but may or may not be actively announced on
      mailing lists or newsgroups. Users concerned about this problem are
      encouraged to check the above URL for any updates.
      
      Revision History
      ================
      
      +---------------------------------------+
      | Revision |             | Initial      |
      | 1.0      | 2008-May-21 | public       |
      |          |             | release.     |
      +---------------------------------------+
      
      Cisco Security Procedures
      =========================
      
      Complete information on reporting security vulnerabilities in Cisco
      products, obtaining assistance with security incidents, and
      registering to receive security information from Cisco, is available
      on Cisco's worldwide website at 
      http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_security_vulnerability_policy.html
       This includes instructions for press inquiries regarding Cisco 
      security notices. All Cisco security advisories are available at 
      http://www.cisco.com/go/psirt
      
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